Site items in: Ammonia Storage

Ammonia logistics

This presentation will cover logistics in general for ammonia in the USA. In particular, what are the challenges of rail pressures on ammonia transport? What, if any, policy goal does TFI pursue to address challenges with the rail industry?


The presentation will include an overview of hard rock storage caverns, their history and design parameters including acceptable host geology. It will detail how ammonia caverns have been used in industrial facilities for over 50 years and how caverns can play an important role in the growth of Ammonia usage globally.

A Fuel Standard for Ammonia: panel wrap-up from the Ammonia Energy Conference 2020

What are the key considerations for a future Ammonia Fuel Standard? On November 17, 2020, the Ammonia Energy Association (AEA) hosted a panel discussion moderated by Ron Stanis from GTI (Gas Technology Institute), as well as panel members David Richardson from Airgas, Rob Steele from EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute), Eric Smith from IIAR (International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration), and Dorthe Jacobsen from MAN Energy Solutions at the recent Ammonia Energy Conference. The AEA Fuel Standard Committee has been developing a draft product specification that will facilitate the acceptance of ammonia as a fuel. The overall message from panelists came through loud and clear: the draft standard is ready for stakeholder comments, and the Fuel Standard Committee welcomes your input.

Ammonia Fuel Standard, where do we go from here?

A discussion focused on the path to creating an ammonia fuel standard. Exploring the current state of the Ammonia Fuel Product Standards, its parallels to the current ammonia industry, and the challenges that need to be overcome to develop a meaningful standard for all stakeholders in the ammonia fuel supply chain.

Safety of Ammonia As Hydrogen and Energy Carriers

Ammonia (NH3) is liquefied at 1 MPa and 25 °C, and has a highest volumetric hydrogen density of 10.7 kg H2 /100L. It has a high gravimetric hydrogen density of 17.8 wt%. The heat of formation of NH3 is about 1/10 of combustion heat of hydrogen. NH3 has advantages as a hydrogen carrier for fuel cell vehicles and an energy carrier for power plants. In this research, the purpose is to figure out regulations for safety of NH3 in the world, and survey NH3 accident. We also characterize water as a NH3 absorbent. Regulations for flammability and health hazard are…

Ammonia Renewable Energy Fuel Systems at Continental Scale

We must soon “run the world on renewables” but cannot, and should not try to, accomplish this entirely with electricity transmission. New, abundant, low-cost, unconventional natural gas supplies are finite; burning adds CO2 to Earth’s atmosphere. Humanity’s goal must be nothing less than: Transforming the world’s largest industry from ~80% fossil to ~100% renewable, CO2-emission-free energy sources as quickly as we prudently and profitably can. We should now carefully consider using pipeline networks, rather than the electricity grid, for solving the three salient technical problems of renewable energy (RE) at lower cost: Transmission: from diverse, stranded, remote, rich RE resources…