Site items in: Dual Fuel

Effects of the Thickness of the Burner Rim, the Velocities of Fuel and Air on Extinction Limit of Ammonia Coaxial Jet Diffusion Flame

Ammonia is regarded as one of the alternative fuels because CO2 doesn’t emit during the combustion process of ammonia. Ammonia also has advantages in storage and transportation. In addition, ammonia has a potential to be a “hydrogen carrier” because of high amount of hydrogen content. However, there are several combustion related problems such as the low flammability, the low radiative power and the high NOx formation. To use ammonia as a fuel, therefore, it is necessary to understand the fundamental phenomena of the combustibility of the ammonia such as laminar burning velocity, strength of the radiation and extinction limit. Since…

Ammonia as a Key to Meeting the Fuel Demand of China

Currently, China is facing a challenge of increasing its energy consumption and simultaneously decreasing its emissions. Particularly, the desire of owning a car is so strong in China that it cannot be easily mitigated by high pricing or taxing. This paper presents the statistical results of fuel consumption in China and predicts the fuel demand in near future, it then compares the fuel demand of China with the fuel production scale of the world. It is concluded that China must utilize clean alternative fuels to meet the fast increasing demand for automotive fuels. The price, distribution infrastructure, and thermodynamic properties…

Solar Hydrogen and Ammonia System Status

Further development results of the Raphael Schmuecker Memorial Solar Hydrogen and Ammonia prototype plant, discussing making of Nitrogen and Ammonia, the energy usage, and the general system efficiencies and output. We would also like to discuss our results of dyno testing the Hydrogen / Hydrogen & Ammonia tractor engine and further developments in ammonia fuel vaporization.

Simulation of Fuel Economy of Gasoline-Ethanol-Ammonia Tertiary Fuel Blends for a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle

With the depletion of petroleum resources around the world, a need to have cleaner and fuel efficient automotive technologies and alternative fuel sources has become prominent. Hybrid electric vehicles and sustainable energy sources have gained a high momentum in fulfilling this requirement. To satisfy both needs ammonia, which has been used for a long period of time as a sustainable and carbon free transport fuel can be combined with hybrid electric vehicles. Ammonia when blended with gasoline can be used as an alternate fuel to power existing internal combustion engines. Such blends similar to ethanol-gasoline fuel blends would provide a…

Micro Gas Turbine Operation with Kerosene and Ammonia

A demonstration test with the aim to show the potential of ammonia-fired power plant is planned using a micro gas turbine. 50kW class turbine system firing kerosene is selected as a base model. A standard combustor is replaced with a prototype combustor which enables a bi-fuel supply of kerosene and ammonia gas. Diffusion combustion is employed to the prototype combustor due to its flame stability. Demonstration test of co-firing of kerosene and ammonia gas was achieved to check the functionality of the each component of the micro gas turbine. The gas turbine started firing kerosene and increased its electric power…

Ammonia as an alternate transport fuel: Emulsifiers for gasoline ammonia fuel blends and real time engine performance

Ammonia is a carbon-free solution to energy crisis without strenuous changes to the existing infrastructure. Ammonia and hydrocarbon liquid fuel blends can be used to power existing IC engines as an alternative transportation fuel. Due to the structure of ammonia and hydrocarbon molecules an emulsifying agent has to be used to obtain a stable and high molality solution. Feasibility of ammonia and gasoline liquid fuel blends using ethanol and methanol as emulsifiers was studied in this research. A small thermo-stated vapor liquid equilibrium (VLE) high pressure cell was used to study the solubility of ammonia in gasoline. A larger VLE…

Recent progress on the Ammonia-Gasoline and the Ammonia-Diesel Dual Fueled Internal Combustion Engines in Korea

Both a spark ignition engine and a compression ignition engine are considered to use ammonia as primary fuel in this study. First, in a spark ignition engine, an ammonia-gasoline dual fuel system was developed and both ammonia and gasoline are injected separately into the intake manifold in liquid phase. As ammonia burns 1/6 time slower than gasoline, the spark timing is needed to be advanced near 40 degree before top dead center. The test engine showed quite high variation in the power output with ammonia supply more than 70% of the total heat value. As a result, 70% of gasoline…

The AmVeh – an ammonia fueled car from South Korea

South Korean researchers have successfully road-tested a dual fuel passenger car that runs on a mixture of ammonia and gasoline. It is called the AmVeh and was developed by members of the Ammonia Research Group at the Korean Institute for Energy Research. The prototype vehicle uses a fuel ratio of 70% ammonia to 30% gasoline to power a spark ignition engine. As ammonia contains no carbon, this fuel ratio results in a corresponding 70% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions, compared to pure gasoline. The AmVeh team is now focused on improving the fuel system and the exhaust after-treatment system. Once these are optimized, they aim to develop an engine system that runs on ammonia alone, without any support from gasoline.