Site items in: Emissions Testing

Wärtsilä, Repsol, and Knutsen to test ammonia four-stroke engine

This week, engine manufacturer Wärtsilä announced “the world’s first long term, full-scale, testing of ammonia as a fuel in a marine four-stroke combustion engine.” The project will begin in the first quarter of 2021, at the Sustainable Energy Catapult Centre’s testing facilities at Stord, Norway. It is supported by a NOK 20 million (USD 2 million) grant from the Norwegian Research Council.

New Technology of the Ammonia Co-Firing with Pulverized Coal to Reduce the NOx Emission

Ammonia is recognized as the new energy carrier and it is expected to be introduced into the society in a short time, since the infrastructures related to the ammonia, such as the mass production, transportation and storage are already introduced to produce the fertilizer for the agriculture. There is one technical issue, to use the ammonia in the direct combustion as the fuel for the electric power generation. It is the increase of the NO concentration in the exhaust gas. Ammonia contains the large amount of the nitrogen, comparing with any other fuels that human being has ever treated. Nitrogen…

Performance of Ammonia/Natural Gas Co-Fired Gas Turbine with Two-Stage Combustor

Ammonia has several advantages as renewable energy career [1-3]. Regarding the manufacturing process, the Harbor-Bosch method is already established. For transportation, ammonia can easily be liquefied at room temperature. Therefore, both transportation and storage are much easier than in case of hydrogen. In utilization, ammonia is combustible and used as a carbon-free fuel. However, ammonia has different combustion characteristics from natural gas. For example, the nitrogen atom contained in ammonia molecule causes high NOx emission through fuel NOx mechanisms [3]. Laminar burning velocity of ammonia is much lower; it might increase unburnt ammonia emission and cause unstable operation of gas…

Pure Ammonia Combustion Micro Gas Turbine System

To protect against global warming, a massive influx of renewable energy is expected. Although hydrogen is a renewable media, its storage and transportation in large quantity has some problems. Ammonia fuel, however, is a hydrogen energy carrier and carbon-free fuel, and its storage and transportation technology is already established. In the 1960s, development of ammonia combustion gas turbines was abandoned because combustion efficiency was unacceptably low [1]. Recent demand for hydrogen energy carriers has revived the interest in ammonia as fuel [2, 3]. In 2015, ammonia-combustion gas turbine power generation was reported in Japan using a 50-kW class micro gas…

Duiker Combustion Engineers BV Stoichiometry-Controlled Oxidation (SCO) Technology for Industrial Ammonia Combustion

In recent years, the stoichiometry-controlled oxidation (SCO) concept has been developed by Duiker Combustion Engineers to handle the ammonia-rich streams from sulphur recovery units within refineries. These ammonia rich streams are considered as waste streams that need to be destroyed with low NOx emissions. Several full-scale commercial SCO units have already been designed, delivered, installed and put in operation on refinery sites across the world, firing pure ammonia or rich ammonia-containing flows. The SCO technology has been based upon staged combustion and turns out to be a robust process, which is easy to operate and responds fast to upset conditions.…


There are severe issues on increasing amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emission in the world. Many studies are devoted to alternative fuels. One of promising candidates is the utilization of ammonia which is zero emission of CO2, a hydrogen energy carrier, and also can be burned directly as a fuel. For direct combustion of ammonia in industrial furnaces, there were two issues which were weaker radiative heat flux and a huge amount of NOx emission compared with the combustion of methane. We already have reported [1] the solution of the former issue by using the oxygen enriched combustion. The objective…

Auto-Ignition Kinetics of Ammonia at Intermediate Temperatures and High Pressures

The anxiety over global greenhouse gas emissions has intensified the demand for the development and use of CO2-neutral energy technologies. Ammonia is now attracting attention as a carbon-free energy carrier, because it has good energy density (22.5 MJ/kg) and can be easily liquefied (about 10 bar at 298 K). In addition, ammonia is produced according to the Haber-Bosch process, which makes it one of the most widely-produced inorganic chemical in the world. It could also be produced with renewable energy sources such as wind and solar energy using P2X technology. As a potential fuel for applications in gas turbines and…

Optimization of the NOx Reduction Condition in the Combustion Furnace for the Combustion of

In late years the discharge of the CO2 became the very big problem. The combustion of the fossil fuel in particular exhausts much CO2. Our project team (SIP) is intended to reduce CO2 by using NH3 (10%~30%) in substitution for heavy oil. The ‘SIP energy carriers’ was launched in 2014 (SIP: Strategic Innovation Promotion Program). Ammonia direct combustion team was formed. We conducted a co-research program with Osaka University in this project. We performed experiment of heavy oil – NH3 mixed combustion in the 10kW furnace. As the results, we obtained much experimental data. When we were combusted NH3 and…

Two Stage Ammonia Combustion in a Gas Turbine like Combustor for Simultaneous NO and Unburnt Ammonia Reductions

Ammonia is expected not only as a hydrogen energy carrier but also as a carbon free fuel. Recently, ammonia fueled gas turbine combustor was successfully demonstrated. However, large amount of NOx was produced when ammonia burns because ammonia includes nitrogen atom in the ammonia molecule. In addition, unburnt ammonia concentration in exhaust gas also needs to be reduced. In this study, we proposed a combustion concept in order to reduce NO and unburnt ammonia concentrations in the exhaust gas simultaneously in a gas turbine like model swirl combustor. In this concept, two stage (rich – lean) combustion was employed. Two…

Development of Low-NOx Combustor of Micro Gas Turbine Firing Ammonia Gas

A massive influx of renewable energy is required in order to mitigate global warming. Although hydrogen is a renewable media, its storage and transportation in large quantity is difficult. Ammonia, however, is a hydrogen energy carrier, and its storage and transportation technology is already established. Although ammonia fuel combustion was studied in the 1960s in the USA, the development of an ammonia fuel gas turbine had been abandoned because combustion efficiency was unacceptably low [1]. Recent demand for hydrogen energy carrier revives the usage of ammonia fuel. The National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) in Japan, in…